|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 412-414
Double trouble – Acute kidney injury complicating pediatric acute retinal necrosis
Nicey R Thomas, Arthi Mohankumar, Supriya D Gautam, Mohan Rajan
Department of Retina and Vitreous, Rajan Eye Care Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Submission||11-Dec-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||16-Jan-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Apr-2023|
Vitreoretinal Consultant, Rajan Eye Care Hospital, 5, Vidyodaya Second Street, T. Nagar, Chennai - 600 017, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) occurs due to secondary reactivation of previous herpes simplex or varicella zoster infection. In children, ARN is rare and challenging to manage due to late presentation caused by difficulty in the communication of symptoms to caregivers and lack of treatment guidelines. Acyclovir used for treatment can cause direct tubular injury or crystal deposit in the tubules, causing acute kidney injury (AKI). Prompt management of AKI is required to avoid lethal complications. In this case report, we describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with ARN secondary to primary varicella infection developing AKI following intravenous acyclovir.
Keywords: Acute retinal necrosis, acyclovir, acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity, chicken pox, varicella zoster virus
|How to cite this article:|
Thomas NR, Mohankumar A, Gautam SD, Rajan M. Double trouble – Acute kidney injury complicating pediatric acute retinal necrosis. Indian J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2023;3:412-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Thomas NR, Mohankumar A, Gautam SD, Rajan M. Double trouble – Acute kidney injury complicating pediatric acute retinal necrosis. Indian J Ophthalmol Case Rep [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Jun 6];3:412-4. Available from: https://www.ijoreports.in/text.asp?2023/3/2/412/375028
Varicella (chicken pox) is a childhood exanthematous infection caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). It remains dormant in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. Ocular involvement in cases of primary VZV infection is a rare occurrence that can result in conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, retinitis, optic neuritis, and internal ophthalmoplegia. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare, vision-threatening necrotizing herpetic retinopathy with devastating visual outcomes if not accurately diagnosed and treated. Since the first documented application of acyclovir by Blumenkranz et al., the American Academy of Ophthalmology recommended a loading dose of intravenous acyclovir followed by oral acyclovir, which has been the standard treatment for herpetic ARN. Acyclovir is excreted by the kidneys via glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. It is insoluble in urine and rapidly accumulates in the distal tubules, causing intratubular precipitation of crystals and kidney damage. Herein, we report a case of unilateral ARN secondary to chicken pox complicated by acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity in a 14-year-old boy.
| Case Report|| |
A 14-year-old boy presented with complaints of cloudy vision in the left eye (OS) for 3 days. He gave a history of chickenpox during an epidemic at school 3 weeks back, which had resolved uneventfully. On examination, his best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in both eyes (OU). Slit-lamp examination of OS revealed fine keratic precipitates with 2+ cells in the anterior chamber. The fundus revealed grade 1 vitritis, retinal vasculitis, and multiple yellow-white areas of retinitis in the peripheral retina temporally [Figure 1]a, [Figure 1]b, [Figure 1]c. The right eye (OD) was normal. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) macula of both eyes was normal. Serological analysis using chemiluminescence immunoassay technology showed positive VZV IgM (2.04 index) and IgG (2155.0 mIU/ml) values. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, toxoplasma, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) were negative. Baseline liver and renal function tests were done as a part of the uveitis workup and were found to be normal. All forms of immunosuppression including HIV were ruled out. The patient was started on intravenous acyclovir (10 mg/kg every 8 h for 10 days) along with topical steroids and cycloplegics. After 48 h of initiation of treatment, the margins of retinitis began to regress, and oral steroids (1 mg/kg/day) were started. On the fifth day of intravenous antiviral therapy, the patient began to complain of abdominal pain. The patient was evaluated, and serum creatinine was elevated (3 mg/dl). Pediatrician's opinion was obtained and acyclovir-induced crystal nephropathy was suspected; systemic antiviral therapy was discontinued, and the patient was started on aggressive intravenous fluids. The patient received two doses of intravitreal ganciclovir (2 mg/0.1 ml) with dexamethasone (4 mg/0.1 ml) at an interval of 3 days. The patient's creatinine normalized in 3 days. The areas of retinitis regressed with residual atrophy [Figure 1]d. Prophylactic laser barrage photocoagulation was done posterior to the areas of retinitis. The patient was discharged and started on oral famciclovir 500 mg thrice a day, which was continued for 3 months. The dose of oral steroids was tapered and stopped at 8 weeks. Complete resolution of ARN was noted at 3 weeks with a final BCVA of 20/20 in both eyes. The patient has been followed up for the past 2 years without any recurrence of inflammation.
|Figure 1: (a) Color fundus photo of the left eye showing posterior pole with mild haze suggestive of mild vitritis. (b) Arterial (black arrow) and venous sheathing (yellow arrow) suggestive of peripheral retina vasculitis. (c) Yellow-white areas of retinitis in the peripheral retina from 2 o' clock to 4 o' clock hours (white arrow). (d) Complete resolution of retinitis with barrage laser marks posterior to the atrophic retina 3 months after treatment|
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| Discussion|| |
ARN is a fulminant panuveitis that occurs secondary to reactivation of VZV or HSV infection in immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised individuals. It is characterized by extensive confluent peripheral necrotizing retinitis, vitritis, and retinal vasculitis, and may culminate, in retinal detachment, with a poor visual outcome.
ARN developing in the context of a primary varicella infection has been reported in adult and pediatric patients, with severe manifestations in children. Poor visual outcomes in pediatric patients have been suggested to be due to an immature immune system as well as delayed complaints of their ocular symptoms resulting in delayed diagnosis.
Treatment with intravenous acyclovir at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 8 h for 7–10 days followed by an oral antiviral has been the most established treatment regimen for ARN. Higher maximal acyclovir concentration and faster time to peak concentration have been demonstrated with intravenous dosing. Acyclovir is known to be nephrotoxic, and nephrotoxicity due to acyclovir may occur in 12%–48% of patients. Risk factors include higher doses (>1500 mg/m2/day), dehydration, and preexisting renal dysfunction. It is characterized by a rapid elevation in serum creatinine levels within 12–48 h of drug administration. Immediate detection of acute kidney injury is vital to prevent morbidity. The risk of acyclovir-induced crystal nephropathy can be minimized with intravenous fluids before drug administration, slower infusion of the drug over 1–2 h, and dose adjustment for renal function if required. Treatment of acyclovir nephrotoxicity includes discontinuation of the drug, hydration using intravenous fluids, and usage of loop diuretics. In cases of progressive damage, patients may require hemodialysis or renal transplant. Administration of intravitreal ganciclovir with dexamethasone addresses the viral infection as well as accompanying inflammation in the posterior segment. This approach is effective in cases where systemic treatment is not tolerated, as noted in our case.
Newer oral antivirals which achieve target concentration in the posterior segment, such as valaciclovir and famciclovir, have replaced intravenous acyclovir and are used as the first-line treatment with the added advantage of economical outpatient care. These are equally effective in achieving complete resolution of retinitis, reducing the incidence of complications like retinal detachment and fellow eye involvement. They help achieve comparable visual outcomes and reduce systemic adverse effects.
| Conclusion|| |
Our report highlights a case of management of ARN due to chicken pox in a pediatric patient who developed acyclovir-induced nephropathy. The patient was managed successfully using intravitreal ganciclovir injections followed by oral famciclovir. The identification of nephropathy due to acyclovir treatment in children is equally challenging as making a diagnosis of ARN. Timely intervention aided in avoiding systemic and ocular morbidity. When intravenous acyclovir is used, the importance of adequate hydration to prevent acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity should be stressed.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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