• Users Online: 239
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 275-276

Fundus imaging of ora serrata with an android mobile without any additional attachments

Consultant Vitreo-Retinal Services, Shri Sai Netralaya, Supela, Bhilai, Distt Durg, Chhattisgarh, India

Date of Submission13-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance27-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication07-Jan-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chhaya Bharti
Consultant Vitreo-Retinal Diseases, Shri Sai Netralaya, Supela, Bhilai, Distt Durg, Chhattisgarh - 490 020
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_578_21

Rights and Permissions

Keywords: Additional devices, android mobiles, fundus photography

How to cite this article:
Bharti C. Fundus imaging of ora serrata with an android mobile without any additional attachments. Indian J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;2:275-6

How to cite this URL:
Bharti C. Fundus imaging of ora serrata with an android mobile without any additional attachments. Indian J Ophthalmol Case Rep [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jan 23];2:275-6. Available from: https://www.ijoreports.in/text.asp?2022/2/1/275/334961

Retinal imaging has been exciting since the very beginning when human started visualizing retina. It was first described in the late 19th century.[1] Imaging of retina has become an essential part of retinal practice for patient counselling and disease monitoring. Numerous mydriatic and nonmydriatic fundus cameras are available, which are expensive, heavy, and nonportable. Fundus photography with help of smartphones is the emerging technique of imaging in this era of mobiles having inbuilt digital camera and flash as it is easy, handy, portable, and inexpensive. The revolution of mobile fundus photography started when Lord et al. (2010) took fundus photographs with Apple mobile having an external light source.[2] With advancing technology the mobiles are coming with an inbuilt flash, which can be used as a light source when switched “On” in continuous mode. When such a light source is coupled with condensing lenses like 20 D or panretinal retinal lens functions like an indirect ophthalmoscope and the image appears on screen, which can be magnified further and captured. Reports of fundus imaging with help of additional devices are there.[3] Pictures of ora including breaks, barrages, and buckle height without any additional attachment have not been reported till now.

I have captured fundus pictures of ora with breaks, barrages, buckle heights, and white without pressure areas without indentation or any additional devices or attachments.

Fundus photographs of ora in dilated pupil with help of 20D or panretinal 2.2 lens and mobile (NOKIA 8.1) were captured in cataractous media to silicon oil filled eye of any age group.

Fundus photography was done from July 2018 to December 2020 by using a smartphone (Nokia 8.1) with the help of condensing lens 20D and panretinal lenses. About 5000 pictures were taken. The picture is vertically inverted, real, and laterally reversed, as in imaging by indirect ophthalmoscope. Peripheral fundus anterior to equators can be visualized by asking the patient to move the eyeball in the desired directions and observer should stand diagonally as done while doing fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy. The fundus picture is captured as soon as it becomes visible on screen.


The nondominant hand holds the 20D lens/pan-retinal lens and the dominant hand holds mobile with camera and flash “ON” is coupled by focusing light on len and moving mobile up and down to focus. The working distance is about 20 and 25 cm for 20D lens and pan-retinal lens, respectively. The patient is asked to look straight; as soon as the flash and camera become co-axial over the lens, the fundus becomes visible and images are captured. For peripheral images, the patient is asked to look in different directions and pictures are captured from a diagonal position. Images can be magnified before capturing depending on the magnification provided by the mobile. Fundus image is cropped to remove images outside lens margin, which thus increases the picture size and magnification.

Pictures of pre-term to any age and in any media like cataractous eye to silicon oil filled eyes can be captured, having dilated pupil. The field of view is 40° while magnification is 3 times with 20 D lens and with pan-retinal lens it is 44° and 2.6 times. The image can be further magnified depending on the magnification provided by mobile thus making the picture magnified [Figure 1].
Figure 1: (a) Technique to capture images. (b) Lasered hole. (c) Retinal detachment with hole with operculum. (d) Ozurdex implant in vitreous cavity. (e) Lattice with hole. (f) Lattice with “Ora.” (g) Buckle height in case of band. (h) Lasered coloboma. (i) White without pressure areas

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

  1. The images captured are of true colors as compared to pictures captured by “Optos” and other commercially available fundus cameras.
  2. Especially focused on disease entity at ora and beyond equators.
  3. Much more magnified as compared to indirect ophthalmoscopy and wide-field cameras.
  4. Quadrant specific which cannot be captured by any of the commercially available fundus cameras.
  5. Sharp in quality: the details can be clearly seen.

The described technique of smartphone's photography is easy, handy, light-weight, portable, inexpensive, and time saving. The picture quality is of high resolution, magnified, wide field, and is of true colors. It is useful for counseling, disease monitoring, sharing on various social medias, teaching, tele screening, storage, and documentation. Images are captured by using readily available instruments used in daily retina practice.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Bernardes R, SerranhoP, Lobo C. Digital ocular fundus imaging: A review. Ophthalmologica 2011;226:161-81.  Back to cited text no. 1
Lord RK, Shah VA, San Filippo AN, Krishna R. Novel uses of smartphones in ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2010;117:1274.  Back to cited text no. 2
Sharma A, Subramaniam SD, Ramachandran KI, Lakshmikanthan C, Krishna S, Sundaramoorthy SK. Smartphone-based fundus camera device (MII Ret Cam) and technique with ability to image peripheral retina. Eur J Ophthalmol 2016;26:142-4.  Back to cited text no. 3


  [Figure 1]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded17    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal