|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 368-369
Double lacrimal puncta: Three cases
Mahmut Asfuroglu1, Mehmet B Üçer2, Yonca Asfuroğlu1
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Bolu Izzet Baysal State Hospital, Bolu, Turkey
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Hitit University Erol Olcok Education and Research Hospital, Corum, Turkey
|Date of Submission||02-May-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||09-Sep-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||01-Apr-2021|
Dr. Yonca Asfuroğlu
Sağlık, Şehitler Caddesi, No: 20 14300, Merkez, Bolu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Supernumerary puncta are uncommon lacrimal anomalies. Besides being a rare condition, it is usually overlooked. In this study, we report 3 cases of supernumerary lacrimal puncta. While two patients presented with epiphora; one patient was asymptomatic. In biomicroscopic examination, two lacrimal puncta on the lower lid were observed. A supernumerary punctum should be considered in patients with excessive tearing. Supernumerary puncta may alter the efficacy of topical medications, therefore, patients need to be informed about this rare anomaly.
Keywords: Double lacrimal puncta, lacrimation, tear film
|How to cite this article:|
Asfuroglu M, Üçer MB, Asfuroğlu Y. Double lacrimal puncta: Three cases. Indian J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021;1:368-9
The nasolacrimal system sustains a constant lubricated ocular surface to continue clear optics. After blinking, tear film moves along the menisci towards a single opening, named the punctum.,, Each punctum is surrounded by a papilla and musculature that help drainage of the tears through the canaliculus, nasolacrimal sac, and into the nasal cavity, respectively. During the closure of the eyelids, the canaliculi and sac are contracted to push the tears towards the nasal cavity.
The most common congenital anomaly of nasolacrimal duct in nature is obstruction. In this study, we report a case series of a rare condition: supernumerary lacrimal puncta.
| Case Reports|| |
A 45-year-old female patient was discovered during routine ophthalmologic examination to have two lacrimal puncta on the lower lid of the left eye [Figure 1]. She was unaware of this and she had no symptoms of intermittent or chronic tearing. Biomicroscopy revealed a normal-appearing round (1.0 mm) lateral punctum and another 1.0 mm medially positioned to the other. The lower punctum in the right eye was normal in size and anatomy (1.0 mm round). Dilatation of the double-punctum was performed.
A 55-year-old female patient presented with epiphora in the left eye. In biomicroscopic examination, two lacrimal puncta on the lower lid of the left eye were observed [Figure 2], a normal-appearing round (1.0 mm) lateral punctum and a 0.5-mm punctum medially positioned to the other. The lower punctum in the right eye appeared to be in normal size and anatomy (1.0 mm round). The patient had no systemic association or ocular surgery history. The lacrimal outflow system was evaluated by syringing both punctum and both were communicated to the lacrimal sac. The double-punctum was dilated, and there was no epiphora during the 6-month follow-up.
A 40-year-old male patient presented with symptoms of epiphora in the right eye. In biomicroscopic examination, two lacrimal puncta on the lower lid of the right eye were observed [Figure 3], a normal-appearing round (1.0 mm) lateral punctum and a 1-mm punctum medially positioned to the other. In the left eye, the lower punctum in the left eye was normal (1.0 mm round). The patient had no systemic association or ocular surgery history. The lacrimal outflow system was evaluated by syringing in both punctum; both puncta were communicated to the lacrimal sac. The double-punctum was dilated and there was no epiphora during the 6-month follow-up.
| Discussion|| |
Supernumerary puncta are uncommon lacrimal anomalies. Besides being a rare condition, it is also under-diagnosed because this anomaly is usually overlooked. First documented by Mackenzie in 1854, abnormal epithelial budding from the upper end of the lacrimal cord or incomplete separation of the core from the surface epithelium in an embryo are presumed to cause this anomaly. The incidence of supernumerary puncta shows wide variability in different series. The punctum is the most proximal structure of the drainage system, so any anomaly may cause an imbalance in tear flow.
Accessory puncta are typically located on the lower lid medial to the normal punctum with a slit-like appearance., Mostly, there is one accessory punctum, yet up to four supernumerary puncta have been reported. A supernumerary punctum may be associated with systemic findings, may have a shared canaliculus or the canaliculi may be replicated for each punctum.
Some individuals with a double-puncta and canaliculus have tearing, whereas others are asymptomatic. The site of origin of the accessory canaliculus and the relationship with the lacrimal part of the orbicularis oculi muscle are presumed to determine the direction of the tear flow within the accessory canaliculus, and thus the effect of its presence on canalicular function and symptoms. If the accessory canaliculus originates from the common canaliculus, tears drain back from the common canaliculus to the tear lake during relaxation of the lacrimal part of the orbicularis oculi muscle, resulting with excessive tearing.
Satchi et al. published the largest case report series regarding double-lacrimal puncta, which consisted of 23 patients. They reported that all patients had unilateral accessory punctum in the lower lid and medial to the main punctum. The effect of supernumerary punctum is not well known; several studies reported cases with epiphora, and others reported patients with dry eye. Bair et al. attributed increased severity of dry eye on the side of a duplicated upper canaliculus in a patient due to enhanced outflow.
| Conclusion|| |
Supernumerary puncta are rare congenital anomalies whose incidence is not known. In the majority of publications, they have been described as incidental examination findings in asymptomatic individuals. Even though it may be asymptomatic, a supernumerary punctum should be considered in the examination of a patient with excessive tearing. Patients with supernumerary puncta can be identified with lid eversion during biomicroscopic examinations. Supernumerary puncta may alter the efficacy of topical medications, therefore, patients need to be informed about this rare anomaly.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Conflicts of interest
There is no conflict of interest to disclose.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]